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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Norway. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013. Updates to the report published in the 2010 edition have been provided by Christine Hafskjold at The Norwegian Board of Technology and Lee A.

Report
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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in the Netherlands. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013.

Report
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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Luxembourg. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013.

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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Lithuania. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013.

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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Latvia.

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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Italy.

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Report
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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Greece. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013. Updates to the 2010 report have been provided by Vagelis Papakonstantinou of PK Partners and Elena Spiropoulou of Spiropoulou & Associates.

Report
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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Belgium. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013. Updates to the Macedonian Report published in the 2010 edition of EPHR have been provided by Bardhyl Jashari, Filip Stojanovski, Vesna Paunkovska, Nade Naumovska, Elena Stojanovska and Zoran Gligorov at the Metamorphosis Foundation.

Report
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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Finland. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013. 

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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Estonia. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013. The 2010 report was updated with the assistance of Kaupo Lepasepp and Mihkel Miidla at Sorainen and Viive Naslund at Lepik & Luhaar Lawin.

Report
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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Denmark. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013. Updates to the report published in the 2010 edition of EPHR have been provided by: Christoffer Badse at the Danish Institute for Human Rights and Michael Hopp at Plesner in Denmark.

Report
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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in the Czech Republic. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013.

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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Croatia. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013.

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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Bulgaria. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013. Updates to the Bulgarian Report published in the 2010 edition of EPHR have been provided by Alexander Kashumov, Fani Davidova and Gergana Jouleva at the Access to Information Programme and Plamen M. Borissov of Borissov & Partners.

Report
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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Belgium. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013.

Report
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This country report is an evaluation of privacy and surveillance laws, policies and practices in Austria. The 2010 report was updated with the support of the European Commission's Fundamental Rights and Citizenship programme 2007-2013.

Blog
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Earlier this week it was announced that UK-based Datasift would start offering their customers the ability to mine Twitter’s past two years of tweets for market research purposes. The licensing fees will add another revenue stream to Twitter's portfolio - but at what cost to the company's reputation? Twitter, once the darling of the privacy world, seems to have lost its way.

Blog
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Last month, within thirty seconds of the BBC publishing a quotation from me on the latest round of the nymwars and Google+, my phone rang. Caller ID indicated that it was someone I know who works at Google. "Had I said something wrong?" was my first thought.

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Inspired by the Europe v Facebook campaign and further motivated by revelations that individuals associated with WikiLeaks and the Occupy movements in Boston and New York have had their

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A widely-leaked version of the first legislative proposal for a General Data Protection Regulation is making its way through Brussels and beyond.  The purpose of this 'Regulation' is to provide a new tool for harmonising the protection of personal data across the European Union, and one that takes into consideration the current legislative and technological environment.  The key point is that Europe's rules on privacy are often taken as an example to the world -- and provide a rare opportunity to scale-up protections.

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At the moment there is much anger about a UK Border Official who, according to the BBC, relaxed "identity checks on non-EU nationals" over the summer.  This 'relaxation' then was claimed to have placed the UK at risk because names of visitors were not checked against 'watchlists'. This news is unsurprising in some respects, and quite shocking in others. 

The controversy centres on the call to temporarily suspend checking the e-passports of individuals from outside of the EU.  

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Few understand why we focus on refugee privacy.  Funders don’t understand it so don’t fund it; the public see the plight of refugees as seen on TV, not as a privacy issue; and often times the international community does everything it can to increase scrutiny of refugees. In this blog, I highlight the privacy issues facing refugees and how these issues can jeopardize refugees’ safety as much as any of the environmental, social, or political risks refugees encounter.

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Other human rights organisations often ask us what they should to when it comes to their infosec needs.  Should they run their own mail server, or trust Gmail?  Should they merge their calendars by email (!), a local server, or use some cloud solution?

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PI just received a response from Secretary General Thorbjørn Jagland of the Council of Europe (CoE) stating that the CoE is refusing to start an investigation on the collection and storage of citizens biometric data by member states. On 31 March an international alliance of organisations and individuals lodged a petition calling on him to start such an indepth survey under Article 52 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR).

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An international alliance of organisations and individuals from 27 countries has lodged a petition calling on the Council of Europe to start an indepth survey on the collection and storage of biometric data by member states.

European governments are increasingly demanding storage of biometric data (fingerprints and facial scans) from individuals. These include storage on contactless 'RFID' chips in passports and/or ID cards. Some are going even further by implementing database storage e.g. France, Lithuania and the Netherlands.

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Last week in DC I had lunch with an old colleague of ours, a CPO of company. We had a wide ranging discussion, but the most fascinating discussion was the term 'personally identifiable information', or 'PII'.  In case you were wondering, privacy advocates do spend much of their time talking shop, and sometimes quite arcane issues arise -- but we're not entirely boring people.

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Not since the 1990s has the internet been so exciting. With its use by political activists and journalists around the world, we can now again entertain the discussions that the internet brings freedom. Digital data traverses routers with little regard to national boundaries and so traditional constraints not longer apply. So it is no surprise that protestors on the streets of Tehran or Cairo are using the internet to organise.

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For the past couple of months we have been discussing with Google their transparency plans regarding governments accessing data held by Google. Last week Google released initial data on how many requests for data were coming from which governments.

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The Active Millimeter Wave body scanners that airport security officials plan to use in greater numbers after a failed attempt to explode a bomb in a plane over Detroit raise troubling questions about passenger privacy, and ultimately the technology’s utility as a security measure.

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