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Where possible we present data on specific privacy practices. It was not always possible to precisely assess a company's approach in each category. As a result, we erred on the side of caution and gave the company the benefit of the doubt and assessed it only for what we could actually identify.

We look forward to working with the relevant companies in the coming months to complete the study -- this will be expanded in the September report. We look forward to receiving compelling evidence that a given company respects the privacy of its users, and protects their personal information accordingly.

We will also be reaching out to even more experts from around the world who may recommend additional categories and even other companies to include in this study.

As a result, some findings of this report may change substantively.

Each category is currently assessed based on a color-band system:


Privacy-friendly and privacy enhancing

Generally privacy-aware but in need of improvement

Generally aware of privacy rights, but demonstrate some notable lapses

Serious lapses in privacy practices

Substantial and comprehensive privacy threats

Comprehensive consumer surveillance & entrenched hostility to privacy


Companies were given a rating for each category and the average results (in categories where there was data) resulted in the final assessment. So while many of the companies demonstrated both positive and detracting features, we calculated an average score.

This result was then double-tested by presenting experts with the qualitative findings without any category-level assessment and we asked for the experts' own assessments. The convergence of all our assessments is provided as 'initial findings'.