Table of Authorities
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, opened for signature 19 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171, art 19(1), (entered into force March 23 1976).
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, ETS No 5. 1950.
American Convention on Human Rights, O.A.S.Treaty Series No. 36, Nov. 21, 1969.
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights [Banjul Charter] (Nairobi, Kenya, 27 June 1981), 21 I.L.M. 59 (1981), entered into force 21 Oct. 1986.
CASES AND DECISIONS
Prosecutor v Radoslav Brdjanin and Momir Talic, Case No. IT-99-36-AR73.9 ICTY, (11 Dec 2002). (United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia)
Prosecutor v. Taylor, Decision on Defense Notice for Disclosure, SCSL-03-01-T (6 March 2009). (Special Court for Sierra Leone)
Goodwin v. The United Kingdom [GC] No. 17488/90  ECHR 16 (27 March 1996). (European Court of Human Rights)
Roemen and Schmit v. Luxembourg, No. 51772/99  ECHR 102 (25 February 2003). (European Court of Human Rights)
Ernst and Others v. Belgium, No. 33400/96  ECHR 359 (15 July 2003). (European Court of Human Rights)
De Haes and Gijsels v. Belgium, No. 7/1996/626/809/1996/626/  25 E.H.R.R. 1. (European Court of Human Rights)
Arrêt No. 91/2006 du 7 Juin 2006. (Belgium Cour d'Arbritrage)
Inquérito n° 870-2/RJ – rel. Min. Celso de Mello, Diário da Justiça, Seção I, 15 de abril de 1996, p 11.462 (Brasil Supreme Federal Tribunal)
Canadian Broadcasting Corp. v. Lessard,  3 S.C.R. 000 (Supreme Court of Canada)
Canadian Broadcasting Corp. v New Brunswick (Attorney General),  3 S.C.R. 459 (Supreme Court of Canada)
Expediente No. 07-005291-0007-CO - Res. 7548-2008 (10 May 2008) (Supreme Court of Justice, Costa Rica)
20 BVerfGE 162 - Spiegel, 5 August 1966. (German Constitutional Court)
1 BvR 538/06; 1 BvR 2045/06 – Cicero, 27 February 2007. (German Constitutional Court)
Sham John v. Eastweek  1 HKC 264 (Hong Kong Court of Appeal)
Mahon Tribunal -v- Keena & anor,  IESC 64 (2009) (Supreme Court of Ireland)
Case 2006 (Kyo) No. 19, Minshu Vol. 60, No. 8, 2006.10.03. (Supreme Court of Japan)
Proc No. 7139/065, 10 January 2006 (Court of Appeal of Lisbon)
Mersey Care NHS Trust v Ackroyd,  EWCA Civ 101. (UK Court of Appeal)
British Steel Corpn v Granada Television Ltd,  1 All ER 417. (UK Court of Appeal)
Regina v Kearney, Webb & Murrer, Case No T20077479, 25 November 2008. (UK High Court)
Branzburg v. Hayes, 408 U.S. 665 (1972). (US Supreme Court)
NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONS AND STATUTES
Constitution of Argentina
Belgium, Loi du 7 avril 2005 relative á la protection des sources journalistiques
Constitution of Brasil, 1988 as amended 1996
Constitution of Cape Vedre, 1989
France, Code of Criminal Procedure, §109
Georgia, Law on Freedom of Speech and Expression
Constitution of Macedonia
Mexico, Código Penal Federal, 243 Bis inciso III.
New Zealand Evidence Act 2006, §68.
The Philippines Republic Act No. 53 (amended by RA 1447).
Constitution of Spain
Sweden, The Freedom of the Press Act, SFS nr: 1949:105
Sweden, The Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression, SFS nr: 1991:1469.
Switzerland, Penal Code, §28a
Turkey, Press Law, No: 5187, §12, 9 June 2004.
UN Human Rights Commission, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Mr. Abid Hussain, submitted pursuant to Commission resolution 1997/27, Addendum: Report on the mission of the Special Rapporteur to the Republic of Poland. E/CN.4/1998/40/Add.2, 13 January 1998.
UN Human Rights Commission, The right to freedom of opinion and expression, Human Rights Resolution 2005/38, E/CN.4/2005/L.10/Add.11, 19 April 2005.
The UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression, the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, the OAS Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and the ACHPR (African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights) Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information, Joint Declaration on Defamation of Religions, and Anti-Terrorism and Anti-Extremism Legislation, December 2008.
African Commission on Human & Peoples' Rights, Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression in Africa, adopted at the 32nd Ordinary Session, October 2002.
Council of Europe, 4th European Ministerial Conference on Mass Media Policy - Prague, 7-8 December 1994: The media in a democratic society, Resolution No. 2: Journalistic Freedoms and Human Rights.
Council of Europe, Recommendation No. R (2000) 7 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Right of Journalists not to Disclose Their Sources of Information, 8 March 2000.
Council of Europe, Recommendation No. R (96) 4 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the protection of journalists in situations of conflict and tension, 3 May 1996.
Council of Europe, Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on freedom of expression and information in the media in the context of the fight against terrorism, 2 March 2005.
Guidelines of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on protecting freedom of expression and information in times of crisis. Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 26 September 2007 at the 1005th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies.
Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe, Concluding Document of the Vienna Meeting 1986 of Representatives of the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe, Held on the Basis of the Provisions of the Final Act Relating to the Follow-Up to the Conference: Co-operation in Humanitarian and Other Fields, §40.
Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Office of the Representative of Freedom of the Media, Access to information by the media in the OSCE region: trends and recommendations Final survey, Vienna, 3 July 2008.
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Representative on Freedom of the Media, Access to information by the media in the OSCE region: trends and recommendations. Summary of preliminary results of the survey, 30 April 2007.
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Inter-American Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression, Adopted at the 108th regular session, 19 October 2000.