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Five examples

1.    In 2009 it was revealed that a joint venture of German conglomerate Siemens AG and Finnish telecoms company Nokia had provided Iran with the capabilities to control and censor the Internet on a massive scale, allowing the government to examine the content of individual online communications using a practice called deep packet inspection.

2.    Stockholm-based Ericsson AB and British company Creativity Software Ltd marketed monitoring equipment to Iran expressly for law enforcement use, including a location-monitoring product

3.    Technology used by the Bahraini authorities to facilitate torture and unlawful interrogation was sold by Siemens AG, and maintained by Nokia Siemens Networks and NSN’s divested unit Trovicor GmbH.

4.    In August 2011 clear evidence emerged that Amesys, a unit of French technology firm Bull SA, had equipped Colonel Gadhafi’s internet monitoring centre with deep packet inspection technology, when Tripoli fell to the Libyan revolutionaries.

5.    When Egyptian human rights activists broke into the headquarters of the Mubarak regime’s State Security Investigations service in March 2011, they discovered documents demonstrating that a British company called Gamma International had offered to sell the security services technologies to infect computers, hack into web-based email and communications tools such as Skype and take control of other groups' systems remotely.