Artificial Intelligence and its applications are a part of everyday life: from social media newsfeeds to mediating traffic flow in cities, from autonomous cars to connected consumer devices like smart assistants, spam filters, voice recognition systems, and search engines.
Effective competition is necessary for privacy and innovation. Increasingly the digital economy is characterised by a few companies in dominant positions. These companies are able to impose terms and conditions onto users that exploit their data, and which are detrimental to users’ privacy.
Political campaigns around the world have turned into sophisticated data operations. They rely on data to facilitate a number of decisions: where to hold rallies, which States or constituencies to focus resources on, which campaign messages to focus on in which area, and how to target supporters, undecided voters, and non-supporters.
Data Protection laws seek to protect people's data by providing individuals with rights over their data, imposing rules on the way in which companies and governments use data, and establishing regulators to enforce the laws.
As development and humanitarian organisations deploy new technologies and make use of data-intensive systems in their programmes, they must consider what their mandate of “Doing no harm” entails in the digital age.
The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is the EU’s new data protection law. The GDPR came into effect on 25 May 2018, and reformed and replaced data protection law across Europe. Before the GDPR, data protection in the EU was governed by the 1995 Data Protection Directive, which required countries within the EU to pass national laws implementing provisions within the Directive. GDPR applies directly in all Members States and is supplemented by national legislation.